2 edition of Costs of coal surface mining and reclamation in Appalachia found in the catalog.
Costs of coal surface mining and reclamation in Appalachia
E. A. Nephew
by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, available from National Technical Information Service, U.S. Dept. of Commerce in Oak Ridge, Tenn, Springfield, Va
Written in English
|Statement||E. A. Nephew, R. L. Spore, with the assistance of Gwin, Dobson & Foreman, inc.|
|Contributions||Spore, R. L.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||v, 44 p. :|
|Number of Pages||44|
In Appalachia, Coal Mining Costs $9-$76 Billion More Per Year Than It Pulls In. For the average TreeHugger reader the environmental costs of coal are probably well known--massive emissions of CO2 Author: Mat Mcdermott. Mountaintop removal mining (MTR), also known as mountaintop mining (MTM), is a form of surface mining at the summit or summit ridge of a mountain. Coal seams are extracted from a mountain by removing the land, or overburden, above the method of coal mining is conducted in the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States. Explosives are used to .
A History of Appalachian Coal Mines, in Legal Problems of Coal Mine Reclamation: A Study in Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, ) WATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH SERIES • FlU 03/72Author: Kenneth Lasson. This video is about Coal Mining via Mountain Top Removal. Appalachian Coal Mining See how coal is mined in the Appalachian Mountains via Mountain Top Removal. This 30 minute video takes you inside.
3. Surface Coal Mine Reclamation Process Strip mining is a form of surface coal mining where overburden is removed to expose the underlying coal seam. There are three general types: area mining on flat terrain and contour and mountain top removal mining on steep terrain. Area mining is practiced on relatively flat terrain. Central Appalachia’s history is the story of coal. At its peak in the mid th century, mining employed more than , people in West Virginia alone, mostly in the state’s otherwise poor Author: Jedediah Britton-Purdy.
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Coal surface mining and reclamation costs in Appalachia are estimated as a function of reclamation quality, the angle of natural terrain, and the overburden-to-coal stripping ratio.
When mining to a maximum stripping ratio of 20, the cost of providing minimally acceptable, or basic, reclamation is estimated to be $, $, and $/ton of.
Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.
Surface mining began in the mid-sixteenth. As of AprilJim Justice had accumulated roughly $ million in mine cleanup costs he has yet to address in Virginia, according to the state’s Coal Surface Mining Reclamation Fund Advisory dwarfs the state’s bond pool, which contains approximately $ million, according to Climate Home inactive coal mine behind.
Layers of rock and dirt above and between the coal seams are removed. Coal seams are removed with excess soil and rock placed in an adjacent valley. Large scale earth moving equipment is used to excavate and remove coal from lower layers. The equipment used depends on the method and scale of the surface mining method being employed.
The U.S. Government's Official Website for the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE). OSMRE's business practices are to reclaim abandoned mine lands (Title IV), regulate active coal mines (Title V), and apply sound science through technology transfer.
Appalachia, which has been ground into codependent poverty by the coal industry over the course of a century, has been declining, in coal output and employment, for decades. Lately it has only. As the destructive coal mining process known as mountaintop removal ebbs in Appalachia, it is leaving behind what amounts to its own grim field of tombstones: A grossly disfigured landscape pocked.
Only coal-related problems caused by mining prior to the enactment of Surface Mining Control Reclamation Act (SMCRA) that meet the first two objectives set out in SMCRA, Priorities 1 and 2, have been systematically inventoried. The categories of problems in the Inventory and their share of unfunded reclamation costs in the Inventory are shown.
surface mining for coal, and surface mining has expanded in recent years. Inthere were active surface mines, which produced million tons of coal [U.S. Bureau of Mines ]. Permits for surface mining of 21, acres were active as of Ma The regional population is in the neighborhood of 80, living in small.
To Save the Land and People: A History of Opposition to Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia - Kindle edition by Montrie, Chad. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets.
Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading To Save the Land and People: A History of Opposition to Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia.5/5(1). Coal mining costs are rising much more slowly in the Powder River and Illinois basins, which remain competitive, Shmaruk said.
The Powder River Basin, mostly in Wyoming, accounts for 40 percent of. Coal is mined in Appalachia by both surface and underground mining techniques. Surface coal mining methods in the steep terrain of the central Appalachian coalfields include mountaintop removal, contour, area and highwall mining.
Coal mining operations are found in Kentucky, West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Alabama and. While coal has conferred vast wealth on a small number of coal barons, bankers, regional landholding companies, and electric utilities, extreme poverty remains rampant in Appalachia.
County by county data show a remarkable correlation between the coalfield areas most affected by surface mining and high poverty rates.
A powerful source of pollution. The direct short-run effect on employment in Appalachia resulting%om legislation requiring full reclamation of strip-mined lands can be estimated once the short-run LTN, SPORE AND NEPHEW TABLE VI Employment Opportunities Created by Reclamation Activities in Appalachian Coal Mining Industry Subregion Man-hours employed for reclamation 50% Cited by: 9.
Surface mining at these scales is more economical for coal companies, safer for miners, and, coal operators say, essential for mining the thin seams of lower-sulfur coal more valuable in today’s market. With dynamite and immense machines, surface mines can produce more than two to three times as much coal per miner as underground mines : Rebecca Lindsey.
Abandoned Mined Land Reclamation in Appalachia Scope: According to a compilation of individual states’ data, it has been estimated that over billion acres of land nationwide have been disturbed by strip mining practices, including at least million by mountaintop removal mining in Central Appalachia.
Plundering Appalachia is a collection of photographs and essays detailing the grim realities of mountaintop removal mining: the effects of the blasting on the environment and the people and animals in its wake; the irreversible devastation of the natural landscape of Appalachia; how mountaintop removal is or is not regulated; and the true costs of the practice over time/5(9).
There were three of the giant machines at issue: The Tiger, The Mountaineer, and The GEM of three were then in the service of the Hanna Coal Company, which byhad been strip mining in Ohio for decades and was then a division of the much larger Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company, later known as “Consol,” itself then owned by Continental Oil.
Coal mining is only a temporary use of land, so it is vital that rehabilitation of land takes place once mining operations have stopped. In best practice a detailed rehabilitation or reclamation plan is designed and approved for each coal mine, covering the period from the start of operations until well after mining has finished.
Though it’s hard to put a dollar sign on the human toll, Hendryx estimates that costs associated with the higher mortality of Appalachia’s coal-mining regions between and totaled $50 Author: Gwynn Guilford.
Mortality rates in coal-mining counties of Appalachia lagged 24 years behind the national average, according to a study by Dr. Michael Hendryx, then of West Virginia University. That’s after adjusting for the social and economic inequalities — such as levels of education and rates of poverty — that affect life expectancies across the.
The Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) is also working with EPA and the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers to develop an environmental impact statement (EIS) analyzing environmental impacts of coal surface mining in the Appalachian region. OSMRE expects to release an EIS along with a proposed stream protection rule this .Total costs of reclamation are determined using a cost engineering method, in conjunction with Office of Surface Mining Regulation and Enforcement bond calculation worksheets.
In Kentucky, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia, hayland/pasture reclamation is more costly on a per acre by: 3.